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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. Symptoms …

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Nicotine dependence

Nicotine dependence ― also called tobacco dependence ― is an addiction to tobacco products caused by the drug nicotine. Nicotine dependence means you can’t stop using the substance, even though it’s causing you harm. Nicotine produces physical and mood-altering effects in your brain that are temporarily pleasing. These effects make …

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Actinic keratosis

An actinic keratosis (ak-TIN-ik ker-uh-TOE-sis) is a rough, scaly patch on your skin that develops from years of exposure to the sun. It’s most commonly found on your face, lips, ears, back of your hands, forearms, scalp or neck. Also known as a solar keratosis, an actinic keratosis enlarges slowly …

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Guillain-Barre syndrome

Guillain-Barre (gee-YAH-buh-RAY) syndrome is a rare disorder in which your body’s immune system attacks your nerves. Weakness and tingling in your extremities are usually the first symptoms. These sensations can quickly spread, eventually paralyzing your whole body. In its most severe form Guillain-Barre syndrome is a medical emergency. Most people …

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Ectopic Pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is the result of a flaw in human reproductive physiology that allows the conceptus to implant and mature outside the endometrial cavity (see the image below), which ultimately ends in the death of the fetus. Without timely diagnosis and treatment, ectopic pregnancy can become a life-threatening situation.  Signs …

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Benign Vulvar Lesions

In the last few years, interest in vulvar disease has greatly increased. However, the relevant material has been scattered throughout the literature of various specialties, including dermatology, genitourinary medicine, gynecology, and pathology. The spectrum of involved specialties reflects the complexity of vulvar diseases and the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach …

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Fecal Incontinence

Fecal incontinence is one of the most psychologically and socially debilitating conditions in an otherwise healthy individual. It can lead to social isolation, loss of self-esteem and self-confidence, and depression. This article is devoted to the problem of fecal incontinence in the adult female patient. [1] In 2015, summaries of the …

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Panic Disorder

Panic disorder is characterized by the spontaneous and unexpected occurrence of panic attacks, the frequency of which can vary from several attacks per day to only a few attacks per year. Panic attacks are defined as a period of intense fear in which 4 of 13 defined symptoms develop abruptly …

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Atelectasis

The term atelectasis is derived from the Greek words ateles and ektasis, which mean incomplete expansion. Atelectasis is defined as diminished volume affecting all or part of a lung. Pulmonary atelectasis is one of the most commonly encountered abnormalities in chest radiographs. Recognizing an abnormality due to atelectasis on chest radiographs can be crucial …

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Cyanosis & Hypoxemia

Before the era of rapid blood gas analysis, clinicians often assessed hypoxemia on clinical grounds alone, primarily by looking for cyanosis in the perioral area and fingers.  Clinical assessment of hypoxemia is now known to be notoriously unreliable. A host of factors, from natural skin pigment to room lighting, can affect …

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